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Guía práctica para sobrevivir a una ola de calor

Noches sin dormir, cansancio continuo, sudor excesivo, somnolencia, deshidratación, quemaduras… estos son los problemas más habituales a los que nos enfrentamos durante una ola de calor. No son graves pero pueden serlo si no se adoptan medidas. La buena noticia es que existen soluciones que se pueden llevar a cabo y que son sencillas. Esta información es una guía práctica de qué debes hacer para que no te pasen factura las altas temperaturas.


Consejos para sobrellevar el calor

Los consejos de hábitos de vida están claros:

  • Avoid exposure to the sun and physical exercise during the hottest hours of the day.
  • Reduce physical activity while temperatures are high.
  • Drink plenty of fluids without waiting to be thirsty.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Avoid heavy and/or very hot meals.
  • Wear light, loose-fitting, and light-colored clothing.
  • Do not overdress children.
  • Stay in ventilated and cool spaces.
  • Lower blinds and close windows during the day, and open them at night to ventilate.
  • Store medication in an appropriate place.
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Everyone should follow these guidelines, but vulnerable groups should do so with special care. It is recommended that older or sick people living alone be visited daily and that those requiring medication consult their doctor about the interaction of extreme heat and medications. Lorenzo Armenteros emphasizes the importance of hydration due to the loss of water and salts caused by the heat.

Recomendaciones para grupos vulnerables

Lorenzo Armenteros urges chronic patients to consult their family doctor “at the slightest alteration” and dispels myths such as the belief that beer is beneficial for mitigating the effects of heat or the use of alcohol to cool the skin. Any type of alcoholic beverage dehydrates and alcohol dries the skin, damaging cells and potentially affecting the sweating mechanism.

Protección laboral durante olas de calor

Companies should provide suitable conditions for employees working outdoors. Armenteros recommends adjusting schedules to avoid exposure to the sun and heat during the hottest hours. If this is not possible, it is advisable to provide shade in work areas and breaks every 15 or 20 minutes for workers to cool off.

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¿Qué hacer en caso de golpe de calor?

Heatstroke is the main acute consequence of extreme temperatures. The first thing to do is to call emergency medical services. While waiting for professional help, Lorenzo Armenteros offers some useful recommendations:

  • Move the affected person to a cool, shaded, and ventilated place.
  • Hydrate and cool the person gradually, not abruptly.
  • If conscious, speak to the person to maintain awareness and give water slowly.
  • If a cardiac arrest occurs, initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the assisting person has the necessary knowledge.

Medidas para adaptarse a las olas de calor

The increase in heatwaves due to climate change poses a greater risk to vulnerable populations living in poor housing in urban areas. It is essential to identify the target population through support services to provide 24-hour contact numbers for emergencies and promote health education on the effects of extreme heat in social, educational, and community centers.

Cristina Linares and Julio Díaz propose adaptation measures to address more frequent heatwaves:

  • Design local prevention plans tailored to each geographical area.
  • Create public climate shelters.
  • Redesign cities to reduce the impact of heat and the urban heat island effect.
  • Increase the reflectance of buildings and ground surfaces.
  • Implement green roofs
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El Jacaguero es una fuente de noticias en línea que se especializa en brindar a sus lectores las últimas novedades sobre la República Dominicana.

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